Health Care Journals | Open Access - Edelweiss | Edelweiss Publications

Edelweiss: Psychiatry Open Access (ISSN 2638-8073)

Impact of Workplace Deviance Behavior on Turnover Intention of Employees in Pakistan

Muhammad Ramzan Mehar, Muhammad Asif and Ali Hassan

Avaliable from February, 2018


Workplace deviance behaviors are a negative fact that damages people who working within them and organizations without sound. This particular study is on finding out the Impact of Workplace Deviance Behaviors on Turnover Intentions of Employees in Pakistan. For this purpose researcher conduct a one short study that examine a sample of 110 employees from private and governmental organizations from Lahore, Pakistan. Our research help to people who want to know about Workplace Deviance and its consequences, and corrective measures of this behavior. For analysis purpose researcher used descriptive, frequency and correlation analysis. Result shows that most of people in Pakistan thing to leave an organization/ current job with offering new one. Turnover Intentions has positive and significant relationship with Political Deviance, Personal Deviance, and Production Deviance but Turnover Intentions has insignificant relationship with Property Deviance.



This study is about to find the impact of workplace deviance behaviors on turnover intentions of employees in Pakistan. The study is helpful for various private and government organizations to knowing about workplace deviance and its consequences. Workplace deviance has become very interesting topic for research since last 20 years. Workplace deviance is due to mistreatment in workplace that effect employees and organizational effectiveness and it is very harmful in a negative form for any organization. Because it leads towards employees that is followed increase in turnover intention, intention to leave, workplace theft absenteeism, property destructions, waste time & sources, and many other similar negative reactions. And ultimately deviance behaviors in workplace cause to destroy organizational commitment and financial & non-financial repute of the organizations.


Our research topic is impact of workplace deviance on turnover intention of employees in Pakistan study include workplace deviance as an independent variable and turnover intention as dependent variable. There are 4 dimensions and its elements of deviance behaviors include this research study, these dimensions are political deviance, personal deviance, production deviance, and property deviance. Because of workplace deviance organizations face many problems but one of the main problems that under discussion in this paper is turnover intention, this study conduct to find relationship or correlation between workplace deviance and turnover intentions.

Research Problem

The problem which is focused by researcher in this particular study to know about the impact and relationship between workplace deviance behavior and turnover intention of employees in Pakistan. There is however several form of workplace deviance behaviors such as, political, personal, production and property deviance behaviors that will lead to turnover intentions among employees at workplace which affect the accomplishment of set goals of the organizations. So without eliminating these types of negative behaviors at workplace they said vices are likely to continue and slowdown the achievement of the organizations set goals. Need arises to examine the deviance behaviors at workplace in Pakistan hence this proposed research.

Research objective

• To explain the concept of workplace deviance

• To elaborate the concept of turnover intentions

• To measure the Impact of personal deviance behavior on turnover intention of employee,

• To determine the Impact of property deviance behavior on turnover intention of employee,

• To assess the Impact of production deviance behavior on turnover intention of employee,

• To describe the Impact of political deviance behavior on turnover intention of employee,

• To calculate the impact of workplace deviance on turnover intentions,

• To find the relationship among workplace deviance & its dimensions and turnover intentions.

Significance of the study

The present study focuses on workplace deviance behaviors and its impact and cause to increase turnover intentions in employees. After knowing about turnover intentions, the policy makers in an organization take it into consideration while making policies and taking important decisions to deviance behaviors in workplace.

Limitation of the study

This study includes workplace deviance, its dimensions, & its elements and turnover intention as overall. But it is important to mention that researcher does not includes two elements of political deviance named as backstabbing & competing non-beneficially, one element of personal deviance called endangering coworker, and two elements of production deviance named as intentionally working slow & wasting time and sources in this particular study.

Literature Review

Workplace Deviance

Workplace deviance behavior is voluntary behavior of individual or group of individual that violates significant organizational norms and threatened the wellbeing of the organization or its members by doing so. There are many others names used for workplace deviance like; counterproductive behavior, antisocial behavior, and workplace incivility (Robinson & Bennett, 2011). Another researcher explain workplace deviance in his book as workplace deviance behavior (WDB) refers to an intentional acts executed by employees of the organization that violate norms of the organization and have capacity to maltreat the organization or members of the organization (Cooper & Klimosk, 2007). The tern of deviance are characterized in the context of employees who intentionally steal, come late on job, procrastinate, goof off, fail to provide proper services to their customers and clients, forget to provide detailed report to supervisors and otherwise destruct or downfall the goals for the organization (Elias, 2013). And organizational norms include both formal and informal organizational rules & regulations, policies & procedure, and method of conducting routine business.

There are many scientists identified that workplace deviance in reaction cause to frustrating organizational stressors like; social, financial, and working condition in workplace (Spector & Fox, 2004). Workplace deviance is a well interesting and observed topic in these days in both academic and practical research. Researchers identified that workplace deviance is a very serious problem in both manufacturing and services firms because its consequences are very bad in term of financial and non-financial repute of the organizations (Giacalone & Jurkiewicz, 2005). As all definitions of workplace deviance behaviors mentioned above it is a behavior of organizational employees who intentionally violate the border of the organization that lead to many losses for the business may in the form of satisfaction and dissatisfaction of the other employees, in this particular study workplace used as independent factor to indicate the job satisfaction of the employees.

According to different researchers different classifications of workplace deviance, some divide workplace deviance into positive and negative group, some divert it into minor vs. serious & personal vs. organizational and some classified it into severity and target dimension of workplace deviance (Lawrence & Robinson, 2007). There are four main dimensions of workplace deviance first time discussed by Robinson and Bennett in his paper published in 1995 and after that many researchers also cod these dimensions as it is and these dimensions have many elements with its occurrence on workplace.

Dimensions of workplace deviance and its elements.

Figure1: Dimensions of workplace deviance and its elements.

Political Deviance

Political deviance is considers as minor form of deviance behavior in which one employee or group of employees show favoritism for other certain stakeholders like; co-workers, customers, and suppliers of the organization. Political deviance may include gossip about co-workers, spreading rumors about organization and employees, blaming co-workers and supervisions, backstabbing and competing non-beneficially. Undercharging preferred customers and sharing companies secretes also include in political deviance behavior that may result to high cost for the organizations (Eddleston & Kidder, 2006).

Personal Deviance

Personal is a major and negative form of deviance behavior in workplace in which includes hostile or aggression behavior of individual who have negative thinking against other employees. Political Deviance Personal Deviance Production Deviance Property Deviance Personal deviance is very harmful for well repute of the organization. It may also includes sexual harassment, verbal abuse against some one other employee, physical action to interrupt or distrust work of others, steaming co-worker, and endangering for co-workers (Geffner & Li, 2012).

Production Deviance

Production deviance also considered as minor or positive form of workplace deviance behavior in which employees consistently violate the rules and set standard for quality and quantity for producing a goods and services, It may also be quite costly for the organization, loss of control over predefine set standard of production may cause to increase cost of production for the company, production deviance may also includes leaving early, absenteeism, lateness, taking more break, intentionally working slow, and wasting time & resources (Borman & Klimoski, 2003)

Property Deviance

Property deviance known as serious form of workplace Deviance behavior in which employees of the company destroy or destruct the property of the company without permission of the company, it may also a harmful and costly for the organizations, it includes employees involve in theft of inventory, property destruction, accepting kickback, stealing products, add wrongly additional expenses in accounts, it has negative effect on organizational bottom line (Lawren, 2010).

Turnover intention

Turnover intention is define as employees desire or willingness to leave an organization or it is a process in which staff of the organization or business leave that organization or business or turnover intention is measurement of business or organizations employees plan to leave their positions, it may be voluntary or involuntary (Chen, 2008).

Relationship between Workplace Deviance and Turnover Intention

One of the most important studies was conducted to find out relationship between workplace incivility and turnover intentions with title workplace incivility and turnover intentions: the efficiency of managerial investors in which one public hospital with 550 bad, located in southeastern United States. The data were collected from nurses at two waves or two time and interval between these two waves were 5 months of time. Study includes workplace incivility, team building, personal management interview, and work shift as an independent variables and turnover intentions as dependent variable. At first time data were collected from nurses for workplace incivility, work shift, team building, and interview and turnover intentions and at second time data collected for turnover intention and workplace incivility.

Total 979 nurses include in this survey and out of this 721 nurses fill full content of questionnaire. It means total response rate about 73%. A different likert-type scale questionnaire used for each variable includes this study. Turnover intentions measure by 1= not at all look for other job, 7= extremely likely, workplace incivility measure through 5 point scale as, 1= never, to 5= very often, team building measured as cod 1= response with team building or 0 for otherwise, personal managerial interview as 1= not hold individual meeting, to 10= more than once in every week and work shift also measured by cod. And then apply confirmatory factors analysis (CFA) and cross lagged model and result shows that workplace incivility has positive relationship with turnover intentions even after 5 months. And overall result indicates that incivility has negative consequences for turnover (Bagozzi & Huy, 2009).

This study conduct under the title of curtailing incivility: contextual factors, citizenship behaviors, and managerial practices. In which three question used by researchers to find out the impact of incivility on turnover intentions, contextual factors like; 1.role ambiguity and work shift may increase the effect of workplace incivility on turnover intentions of employees, 2.employees who engaged in positive behaviors like; citizenship behaviors has not affected by incivility behaviors on workplace and not affect to increase in intention to leave, and 3. Managerial practices like; personal management interview and team building may help organization to the effect of incivility on turnover intentions, for the purposes of calculation conduct a longitudinal study that taken sample of 721 nurses who are working in a public research hospital. And overall result shows that employees who experienced role ambiguity and working on night shift increase affect of incivility on turnover intentions, employees who engaged in organization citizenship behaviors does not effected by incivility, and personal management interview and team building practices abridge the effect of incivility on turnover intentions(unpublished working paper).

Researcher went to summarizes all discussion of literature as in all above studies researcher take workplace incivility as independent variable and check it impact on different factors. In this current study researcher toke workplace deviance behaviors of employees and its dimensions like; political deviance, personal deviance, production deviance, and property deviance as independent variable and turnover intentions of employees as dependent variable. And literature suggests the following hypothesis;

Research Methodology

Type of Research

The following study is about descriptive field study conduct in natural work environment with no influence of researcher. The variable of into interest for this research which includes workplace deviance including, production deviance, personal deviance, political deviance, property deviance treated as independent variables and turnover intentions of employees treated as dependent variable. This particular research study conducted to find out association between deviance behaviors in workplace and turnover intentions of employee and impact of independent variables on dependent variable in Pakistan. The data has been collected a single point in time making it a one-short study.

Figure 2

Figure 2

Population and Sampling

The population of this study is includes all operational employees and executive member of all private and governmental organization in Lahore, Pakistan and unit of analysis are individual from different managerial and non-managerial organizations. Researcher use the technique of non-probability sampling called judgmental sampling to draw sample and 150 samples are taken in this study for collecting numerical data regarding variables under discussion.


A self-administered questionnaire used to collect numerical information of employees regarding our qualitative variables. These data just collect to know the relationship or association of workplace deviance behaviors with turnover intention with numeric evidence. For the purpose of checking association and correlation between included variables and analysis SPSS software were used and a multifactor questionnaire were used to record response of multiple organizations (private and government) employees at likert scale from (1) strongly disagree to (5) strongly agree.

Analysis and Interpretation

Turnover intentions

 If I am offered with a new job, I will quit my present job I often think about quitting. I will leave this organization in the next year. Table 4.1, include frequency and % of response with respect to each included items for responses against the Turnover Intentions total response that were useable 110 with mean score as mentioned above 2.7606 and Standard Deviation 0.94187concluding that turnover I showed favoritism for a fellow employee or subordinate employee during recent post. I blamed someone else or let someone else take the blame for my mistake during recent post. I repeated gossip about a co-worker during recent post. I tend to spread rumors about others during recent post I cursed at someone at work during recent post.         I made an ethic or sexually harassing remark or joke at work during recent post. I made someone feel physically intimidated either through threats or carelessness at work during recent post. I perform something harmful for other workers during recent post. I worked on a personal matter instead of worked for your employer during recent post. I take an additional or a longer break than is acceptable at my place of work during recent post. I intentionally worked slowed than I could have worked during recent post. I intentionally came late even my job start earlier during recent post. I intentionally leave early than my assigned daily worked hours during recent post. I am filling an expense account to get reimbursed for more money than I spent on business expense during recent post. I accepted a gift/favor in exchange for preferential treatment during recent post. I took property from work without permission during recent post.

Intentions or employees think to or intention to leave an organization is practices as Neutral means that employees neither agree nor disagree about this practice in Pakistan. Considering its various behavioral patterns when asked about If I am offered with a new job, I will quit my present job 12 responses (10.9%) Strongly Disagree, 19 responses (17.27%) Disagree, 25 responses (22.72%) Neutral, 42 responses (38.18%) Agree and also 12 responses (10.9%) Strongly Agree. The response about second behavior of such intentions I often think about quitting it has been observed that 18 responses (16.4%) Strongly Disagree, 23 responses (20.9%) Disagree, 41 responses (37.3%) Neutral, 14 responses (15.5%) Agree and 11 responses (10.0%) Strongly Agree. The response against the item I will leave this organization in the next year. Strongly disagree 20 responses (18.2%) Strongly Disagree, 28 responses (25.5%) Disagree, 31 responses (28.2%) Neutral, 26 responses (23.6%) Agree and also 4 responses (3.6%) Strongly Agree.

Political Deviance

Table 4.2: Political Deviance (Mean = 2.5055, SD = 0.81711) n = 110.

Personal Deviance

Table 4.3: Personal Deviance (Mean = 1.7927, SD = 0.81766) n = 110.

Production Deviance

Table 4.4: Production Deviance (Mean = 2.6000, SD = 0.95974) n = 110.

Property Deviance

Table 4.5: Property Deviance (Mean = 2.4000, SD = 1.00640) n = 110.


Table 4.6: Correlations.             

Discussions and Conclusions

Turnover intention among employees if they offered with new job exist as most of respondent (f=42, 3818%) agree with such intention, and only few respondent (f=12, 10.9%) not having such type of intention. On the other hand often think to quit and/or leaving current position in next year response reflect that comparatively most respondent neither agree nor disagree with this intention, so it means in Pakistan most of employees having an intentions to leave current organization with offering new somewhere else. This response is not good for the organizations, for reducing this need to take corrective measures by the organizations such as provide spiritual environment, different kind of bonuses and incentive to employees for getting their favors. If we asked people about political deviance behaviors like; showing favoritism for someone, blame someone else for your own mistake, gossip about and spreading rumors against other employees and cursed someone at workplace. The overall response is Neutral not agree, not disagree but comparatively most of people disagree and second largest response that employees agree about doing such behaviors in workplace so here, need to take action before this types of behaviors increase their intensity. Most of response about personal deviance behaviors like; sexually harassing co-workers, teasing co-workers with physically and perform something harm or perform for your own matter then for your employer is as Disagree in Pakistan workers not agree to perform such types of negative behaviors, this is positive sign. Result about production and property deviance behaviors response as Neutral. The result of correlation analysis shows that Turnover Intention has positive and significant relationship with political deviance as 0.403(0.000), Personal Deviance as 0.190(0.047), production Deviance as 0.225 (0.018) but Turnover Intention and Property Deviance has not significant relationship with each other. So the overall result is that the intensity of Turnover Intentions and Political Deviance is more than others.


1.            To better understand mechanisms for dealing such types of phenomenon.

2.            To provide spiritual environment, friendly environment, and environment of trust for creating emotional and fiduciary relationship with employees.

3.            To provide different kind of bonuses and incentives for appreciating good performance of employees. At spot appreciation may also a good measure to increase performance of employees.

4.            To take corrective measure for reducing political deviance.

5.            To provide proper guideline and all necessary information to each regarding their respective tasks for reducing role ambiguity problems.


1.        Aftab H. A Study to Explore the Extend to Which Counter Productive Work Behavior is a Shaped by Job Stress: Facts from the Financial Sector of Pakistan (2013) Anchor Academic Publishing.

2.        Baeunig L. Perceived Suppervisor Support, Meeting Frequency, and Turnover Intention: The Mediating Role of Informational Justice (2007) UMI Microform.

3.        Borman WC, IIgenDR and Klimoski RJ. Hand Book of Psychology: Industrial and organizational Psychology (2003) John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

4.        Chen NF. Causality Relationship Analysi between Leadership Behavior, Organizational Commitment, Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention for Employees of College Athletic Department in Taiwan (2008) The United States Sports Academy.

5.        Dunlop PD and Lee K. Workplace Deviance, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, and Business Unit Performance: The Bad Apples Do Spoil the Whole Barrel (2004) J Organizatn Behav 25: 67-80.

6.        Elias SM. Deviant and Criminal Behavior in the Workplace (2013) New York University Press, New York and London.

7.        Geffner R, Braverman M, Glasso J and Marsh J. Agrression in Organizations: Violance, Abuse, Harassment at Work and in Schools (2012) The Haworth Press, Inc.

8.        Gruys ML. The Dimensionality of Deviant Employee Behavior in the Workplace. Minnesota: Industrial Relations Center (1999) University of Minnesota.

9.        Henle CA, Giacalone RA and Jurkiewicz CL. The Role of Ethical Ideology in Workplace Deviance (2005) J Business Ethics 219-230.

10.     Hyo Sun Jung HH. The Effects of Emotional Intelligence on Counterproductive Work Behaviors and Organizational Citizen Behaviors Among Food and Beverage Employees in a Deluxe Hotel (2011) Int J Hospitality Management.

11.     Langan-Fox J, Cooper CL and Klimosk RJ. Research Composition to the Dysfunctional Workplace: Management Chalanges and Symptoms (2007) Edwar Elgar Publishing Limited.

12.     Lawrence P. Ethical Leadership, Values, Congruence, and Workplace Deviance (2009) ProQuest LLC.

13.     Lawrence TB and Robinson SL. Aint Misbehavin: Workplace Deviance as Organizational Resistance (2007) Journal of Management.

14.     Lipinski J and Crothers LM. Bullying in the Workplace: Causes, Symptons, Remedies (2013) Routledge.

15.     Litzky BE, Eddleston KA and Kidder DL. The Good, The Bad, and The Misguided: How Managers Inadvertently Encourage Deviant Behaviors (2006) Acad Managemnt Perspec 20: 91-103.

16.     Mobley WH, Wang Y and Li M. Advances in Global Leadership (2012) Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

17.     Muafi. Causes and Cinsequence Deviant Workplace Behavior (2011) Int J Innovatn Manage Technol.

18.     Perterson DK. Deviant Workplace Behavior and The Organizations Ethical Climate (2002) J Business Psycol.

19.     Reid LC. Faculty Trust and Its Impact on Voluntary Teacher Intention (2008) UMI Microform.

20.     Robbins S, Aodendaal and Roodt G. Organizational Behavior: Global and Soutern African Perspective (2001) Pearson Education South Africa.

21.     Robinson SL and Bennett RJ. A Typology of Deviant Workplace Behaviors: A Multidimensional Scaling Study (1995) Acad Management J 38: 555-572.

22.     Sguera F, Bagozzi RP and Huy QN. Workplace Incivility and Turnover Intentions: The Efficiency of Managerial Interventions (2009) Acad Management.

23.     Siegel L. Criminology: Theories, Pattern, and Typologies (2010) Windworth Cengage Learning.

24.   Spector PE and Fox S. An Emotion-Centered Model of Voluntary Work Behavior Some Parallels between Counterproductive Work Behavior and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (2002) Human Res Management Rev 38: 269-292.

Corresponding author:

Muhammad Ramzan Mehar, Lecturer at Superior College and University, Lahore, Pakistan, Email:


Ramzan MM, Asif M, Hassan A. Impact of Workplace Deviance Behaviors on Turnover Intention of Employees in Pakistan (2018) Edelweiss Psyi Open Access 1: 14-20


Workplace Deviance; Turnover Intentions; Pakistan