Pyelonephritis is inflammation of the kidney, typically due to a bacterial infection. Symptoms most often include fever and flank tenderness. Other symptoms may include nausea, burning with urination, and frequent urination. Complications may include pus around the kidney, sepsis, or kidney failure. Urinalysis and urine culture confirm the diagnosis of pyelonephritis. Urine cultures, obtained prior to treatment, demonstrate bacteria, most often Escherichia coli. Acute pyelonephritis is a sudden and severe kidney infection. It causes the kidneys to swell and may permanently damage them. Pyelonephritis can be life-threatening. When repeated or persistent attacks occur, the condition is called chronic pyelonephritis. The chronic form is rare, but it happens more often in children or people with urinary obstructions. Health Care Research invites an article to publish in the Journal of Nursing and Health Care. Nursing and Health Care journal offers a stage in Health care Research and related subjects. Journal accepts leading forefront original research papers, review manuscripts, case reports and commentary in the field.