A process that improves the quality of water to make it more acceptable for a specific end-use is called Water treatment. The end use may be drinking, industrial water supply, irrigation, river flow maintenance, water recreation or many other uses, including being safely returned to the environment. Water treatment removes contaminants and undesirable components, or reduces their concentration so that the water becomes fit for its desired end-use.
A combination selected from the following processes is used for municipal drinking water treatment worldwide:
· Pre-chlorination for algae control and arresting biological growth
· Aeration along with pre-chlorination for removal of dissolved iron when present with small amounts relatively of manganese
· Coagulation for flocculation or slow-sand filtration
· Coagulant aids, also known as polyelectrolytes - to improve coagulation and for more robust floc formation
· Sedimentation for solids separation that is the removal of suspended solids trapped in the floc
· Filtration to remove particles from water either by passage through a sand bed that can be washed and reused or by passage through a purpose designed filter that may be washable.
· Disinfection for killing bacteria viruses and other pathogens.
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