The process of extraction of coal deposits from the surface of Earth and from underground is known as Coal mining. Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel on earth and is valued for its energy content; it is used predominantly for producing heat energy. The most economical method of coal extraction from coal seams depends on the depth and quality of the seams, and the geology and environmental factors. Coal mining processes are differentiated by whether they operate on the surface or underground. The mining of coal from surface and underground deposits today is a highly productive, mechanized operation. The various methods of mining a coal seam can be classified under two headings, surface mining and underground mining. Surface and underground coal mining is broad activities that incorporate numerous variations in equipment and methods. Edelweiss Applied Science and Technology journal is an open access maintaining high standard quality articles of coal mining.