Practical analysis of a biological specimen is known as drug analysis for example hair, blood, urine, breath air, oral fluid/saliva or sweat-to determine the presence or absence of specified parent drugs or their metabolites. Most important applications of analysis include identification of the performance enhancing steroids in sport, screening of employers for drugs is prohibited by law (such as cannabis, cocaine and heroin) and police officers testing for the presence and concentration of alcohol (ethanol) in the blood commonly referred to as Blood Alcohol Content (BAC). Breathalyzer is used for BAC testing while urinalysis is used for the majority of drug testing in sports and the workplace. Numerous other methods with variable degrees of accuracy, sensitivity (detection threshold/cutoff), and detection periods exist. A drug test may also refer to a test that provides quantitative chemical analysis of illegal drugs, typically intended to help with responsible drug usage.
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