Effective Nuclear Charge
The nuclear charge is the total charge of all the protons in the nucleus. The effective nuclear charge is the net positive charge experienced by an electron in a polyelectronic atom. The term "effective" is used because the shielding effect of negatively charged electrons prevents higher orbital electrons from experiencing the full nuclear charge of the nucleus due to the repelling effect of inner-layer electrons. The effective nuclear charge experienced by the electron is also called the core charge. It is possible to determine the strength of the nuclear charge by the oxidation number of the atom.
The effective nuclear charge is symbolized as Zeff or Z*
The effective nuclear charge on an electron is given by the following equation:
Zeff = Z-S
Where Z is the number of protons in the nucleus (atomic number), and S is the number of electrons between the nucleus and the electron in question (the number of nonvalence electrons).
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