In organic chemistry, hyperconjugation is the interaction of the electrons in a sigma orbital (e.g. C–H or C–C) with an adjacent empty (or partially filled) non-bonding or antibonding σ or π orbital to give an extended molecular orbital. Hyperconjugation effect is a permanent effect in which localization of σ electrons of C-H bond of an alkyl group directly attached to an atom of the unsaturated system or to an atom with an unshared p orbital takes place. There are many molecules and reaction intermediates which can show hypercojugation. Some of the common examples are Ethyl carbocation, Iso-propyl carbocation, Free radicals, Nitromethane, Acetonitrile and propyne.
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