In chemistry, sigma bonds (σ bonds) are the strongest type of covalent chemical bond. They are formed by head-on overlapping between atomic orbitals. The combination of overlapping orbitals can be s-s, s-pz or pz-pz. Sigma bonding can be a bonding interaction or an antibonding interaction. Bonding interaction results by the overlapping of two atomic orbitals in the same phase whereas antibonding interaction occurs by the overlapping in opposite phase. Sigma bonds are the strongest type of covalent bonds due to the direct overlap of orbitals, and the electrons in these bonds are sometimes referred to as sigma electrons.
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