Carbohydrates are one of the four fundamental macromolecules of life. They are a polymer made up of monomers called monosaccharides. These building blocks are simple sugars, for example glucose and fructose. Two monosaccharides connected together makes a disaccharide. Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms like Polysaccharides serve for the storage of energy (e.g. starch and glycogen) and as structural components (e.g. cellulose in plants and chitin in arthropods). Carbohydrates polymers are formed by using energy to form glycosidic linkages, the bonds between monosaccharides. A dehydration synthesis reaction forms a bond between carbon atoms in two monosaccharides, sandwiching an oxygen atom between them and releasing a water molecule.
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