Supramolecular chemistry is the area of chemistry beyond that of molecules that emphases on the chemical systems made up of a distinct number of gathered molecular subunits or components. The forces responsible for the spatial organization may change from weak such as intermolecular forces, electrostatic or hydrogen bonding to strong like covalent bonding, provided that the degree of electronic coupling between the molecular components remains small with respect to relevant energy parameters of the component. Supramolecular chemistry examines the weaker and reversible noncovalent interactions between molecules. These forces incorporate hydrogen bonding, metal coordination, hydrophobic forces, van der Waals forces, pi-pi interactions and electrostatic effects. Important concepts that have been demonstrated by supramolecular chemistry include molecular self-assembly, folding, molecular recognition, host-guest chemistry, mechanically-interlocked molecular architectures, and dynamic covalent chemistry. Biological systems are often the inspiration for supramolecular research.
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