In organic chemistry, functional groups are a group of atoms responsible for the characteristic reactions of a particular compound. The same functional group will undergo the same or similar chemical reaction(s) regardless of the size of the molecule it is a part of. Functional groups are usually classified as hydrophobic or hydrophilic depending on their charge or polarity. An example of a hydrophobic group is the non-polar methane molecule. Among the hydrophilic functional groups is the carboxyl group found in amino acids, some amino acid side chains, and the fatty acid heads that form triglycerides and phospholipids.
A functional group can participate in specific chemical reactions. Some of the important functional groups in biological molecules include: hydroxyl, methyl, carbonyl, carboxyl, amino, phosphate, and sulfhydryl groups. These groups play an important role in the formation of molecules like DNA, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids.
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