Crystallization is defined as a process by which a chemical is converted from a liquid solution into a solid crystalline state. It is the process of solidification of atoms or molecules into a highly structured form called a crystal. Crystallization can also refer to the solid-liquid separation and purification technique in which mass transfer occurs from the liquid solution to a pure solid crystalline phase.
Crystallization occurs in two major steps. The first is nucleation, the appearance of a crystalline phase from either a supercooled liquid or a supersaturated solvent. The second step is known as crystal growth, which is the increase in the size of particles and leads to a crystal state. An important feature of this step is that loose particles form layers at the crystals surface lodge themselves into open inconsistencies such as pores, cracks, etc
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