A buffer solution is an aqueous solution consisting of a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base, or vice versa. Buffers are solutions that resist change in pH on dilution or on the addition of small amounts of acids or alkali. Buffers are broadly divided into two types acidic and alkaline buffer solutions.
Acidic buffers are solutions that have a pH below 7 and contain a weak acid and one of its salts. For example, a mixture of acetic acid and sodium acetate acts as a buffer solution with a pH of about 4.75.Alkaline buffers, on the other hand, have a pH above 7 and contain a weak base and one of its salts. For example, a mixture of ammonium chloride and ammonium hydroxide acts as a buffer solution with a pH of about 9.25.
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