Photocatalysis is the acceleration of a photoreaction in the presence of a catalyst. Light is absorbed by an adsorbed substrate in catalysed photolysis. During this process, there must be at least two simultaneous reactions occurring, oxidation from photogenerated holes, and reduction from photogenerated electrons. In photogenerated catalysis, the photocatalytic action (PCA) relies upon the capacity of the catalyst to create electron–hole pairs, which generate free radicals (e.g. hydroxyl radicals: •OH) able to undergo secondary reactions. Its practical application was made possible by the discovery of water electrolysis by means of titanium dioxide. Homogeneous photocatalysis and Heterogeneous photocatalysis are two types of photocatalysis.
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