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Clinical Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine (ISSN 2639-6807)


Cardiorenal syndrome

Cardiorenal syndrome was defined as a condition where treatment of congestive heart failure is limited by decline in kidney function. Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is an umbrella term used in the medical field that defines disorders of the heart and kidneys whereby “acute or chronic dysfunction in one organ may induce acute or chronic dysfunction of the other”.

Risk Factors:

The following risk factors have been associated with increased incidence of CRS.

·         Older age

·         Comorbid conditions (diabetes mellitus, uncontrolled hypertension, anemia)

·         Drugs (anti-inflammatory agents, diuretics, ACE inhibitors, ARBs)

·         History of heart failure with impaired left ventricular ejection fraction

·         Prior myocardial infarction

·         Elevated cardiac troponins

·         Chronic kidney disease.

Types of CRS:

  • Type 1: Acute CRS
  • Type 2: Chronic CRS
  • Type 3: Acute Renocardiac Syndrome
  • Type 4: Chronic Renocardiac Syndrome
  • Type 5: Secondary CRS.

Cardiology research Journals like Clinical Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine (CCCM) provides a global open access platform to put forth the ongoing research, reviews articles related to all heart related disease, its treatment, case reports and many more.

Editorial Board

Jhon Smith


Jhon Smith

Senior Resident

Jhon Smith

Associate Professor

Jhon Smith