Neuroimmunology is a field combining neuroscience, the study of the nervous system, and immunology, the study of the immune system. neuroimmunology contributes to development of new pharmacological treatments for several neurological conditions. Many types of interactions involve both the nervous and immune systems including the physiological functioning. Neural targets that control thermogenesis, behavior, sleep, and mood can be affected by pro-inflammatory cytokines which are released by activated macrophages and monocytes during infection. Within the central nervous system production of cytokines has been detected as a result of brain injury, during viral and bacterial infections, and in neurodegenerative processes. The nervous and immune systems have many interactions that dictate overall body health. The nervous system is under constant monitoring from both the adaptive and innate immune system. Throughout development and adult life, the immune system detects and responds to changes in cell identity and neural connectivity. Deregulation of both adaptive and acquired immune responses, impairment of crosstalk between these two systems, as well as alterations in the deployment of innate immune mechanisms can predispose the central nervous system to autoimmunity and neurodegeneration. Autoimmunity has been increasingly linked to targeted deregulation of epigenetic mechanisms, and therefore, use of epigenetic therapeutic agents may help reverse complex pathogenic processes. Multiple sclerosis is one type of neuroimmunological disorder that affects many people. MS features CNS inflammation, immune-mediated demyelination and neurodegeneration, and may represent an emerging class of epigenetic disorders.