Organic Chemistry is a sub division of Chemistry and it deals with the scientific study of structure, properties and the compositions of compounds. This is also considered as the chemistry of carbon containing compounds. Chemicals studied in organic chemistry include hydrocarbons, compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen, as well as myriad compositions based always on carbon, but also containing other elements like hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur etc.
Heterocyclic compound, also called heterocycle, any of a major class of organic chemical compounds characterized by the fact that some or all of the atoms in their molecules are joined in rings containing at least one atom of an element other than carbon. Heterocyclic compounds resemble cyclic organic compounds that incorporate only carbon atoms in the rings.
Cyclic compound, any one of a class of compounds whose molecules contain a number of atoms bonded together to form a closed chain or ring. If all of the atoms that form the ring are carbon, the compound is said to be carbocyclic; if not, the compound is called heterocyclic. Many cyclic compounds exhibit the special properties characteristic of the aromatic compounds.
Aromaticity is a property associated with the extra stability of certain types of p systems. Fundamentally it arises from having the maximum number of electrons in the p bonding molecular orbitals. As we will see, it is not restricted to benzene, substituted benzenes, 6-membered rings or just hydrocarbons. The property of aromaticity is generally about a significant extra stability associated with a resonance delocalized structure.
In organic chemistry, a heteroatom (from Ancient Greek heteros, different, is any atom that is not carbon or hydrogen. Usually, the term is used to indicate that non-carbon atoms have replaced carbon in the backbone of the molecular structure. Typical heteroatoms are nitrogen, oxygen, sulphur, phosphorus, chlorine, bromine, and iodine.
Pyridines are heterocyclic six-membered aromatic compounds containing a single nitrogen atom. Pyridines are a class of important heterocycles and appear in many naturally occurring bioactive compounds, pharmaceutical molecules, and chiral ligands in polysubstituted forms. The pyridine moiety is present in countless molecules with applications as varied as catalysis, drug design, molecular recognition, and natural product synthesis.
Natural products include a large and diverse group of substances from a variety of sources. They are produced by marine organisms, bacteria, fungi, and plants. The term encompasses complex extracts from these producers, but also the isolated compounds derived from those extracts. It also includes vitamins, minerals and probiotics.